This is the raw data from the Planck mission of the intensity fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background. At the highest resolution it includes 50 million pixels of information.
For a selection of scientific papers on the subject see this paperscape graph. For some commentary on Planck’s results, try the blog entries here,here or here. See the Planck Chromoscope for flat 2D maps.
You can use your mouse to control the view: click-drag will change the latitude/longitude, double click zooms in, and mouse scroll-wheel zooms in and out.
The following key bindings are also available: left, right, up, down (scroll the view), +, – (zoom), r (reset view).
The raw data is tiled over a sphere using this scheme. WebGL and thethree.js library are used for rendering.